Effect of Ge on Oxidation Behavior Of 60% Cu – 40% Zn Muntz Metal


  • Ekbal Mohammed Salih Materials Engineering College, University of Babylon, Iraq
  • Hayder J. Karim Materials Engineering College, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq
  • Kadhim F. Al-Sultani Materials Engineering College, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq
  • Zainab Al-khafaji Building and Construction Engineering Technology Department, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Babylon, Iraq; Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia


Copper–base alloys are widely used in Marine industries and heat exchangers. Muntz  Metal 60% Cu – 40% Zn is one of the critical Cu alloys used in decoration, tubing for heat exchangers, and Marine environments, but it is subject to dezincification and stress–corrosion cracking. This study employed alloying elements (Al, Sn, Ge) to achieve their properties (oxidation behavior, thermal shock resistance, mechanical and corrosion resistance). All results confirmed that an enhancement in properties, Ge, plays an essential role in this enhancement due to the formation of protective non-pours oxide layers from GeO2 and AL2O3 layers. Also, adding (Sn) made the alloy's microstructure very fine. These elements improve hardness and reduce corrosion rate by 83%,  while in the oxidation test, the reduction in specific weight change was equal to 99%. Also, a significant improvement in thermal shock resistance concerning the reference sample was achieved.

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